YES. HIV infection among PWID has been shown to increase 6% per year on average in cities that do not have needle exchange. In contrast, HIV declined 6% per year among PWID in cities that have exchange programs. 2 An Australian survey found that HIV prevalence declined 19% per year in cites with needle exchange compared to an 8% increase in cities that did not have exchange programs. 3 In King County, the rate of HIV infection among PWID has remained low and stable for the past sixteen years, with only 3% of the local PWID population infected.